Indonesia Projects Dedicated to Promotion of Religious Freedom and Human Rights
by Professor Tore Lindholm
The Center and Norwegian partner institutions are cooperating in two long-term projects designed to promote familiarity with and scholarly study of the human right to freedom of religion or belief (FORB) in Indonesia. The scholars involved from outside Indonesia are Professor W. Cole Durham, Jr., Director of the Center, and Professor Tore Lindholm, Chair of the Board of the Oslo Coalition on Freedom of Religion or Belief and activist scholar associated with the Indonesia Program at the Norwegian Centre for Human Rights, University of Oslo. The first of the Indonesia projects undertaken focuses on dissemination of knowledge, scholarly study, and practical understanding of globally acknowledged religious freedom norms. Here, our main institutional partner in Indonesia is the Centre for Religious and Socio-Cultural Diversity (CRSD) headed by Director M. Rifa’i Abduh, State Islamic University in Yogyakarta (UIN Sunan Kaluaga). Professors Durham and Lindholm have developed a set of course materials for a master’s level law course focusing on the right to freedom of religion or belief in international and comparative constitutional law. An intensive pilot version of this course, lasting five full days, was organized in Yogyakarta at the UIN Sunan Kaluaga in January/February 2007. Approximately 35 people, mainly younger scholars or NGO activists with a good scholarly background, participated.
On the basis of recommendations received from course participants on the final day of this pilot course, an informal CRSD Coordinating Committee on Freedom of Religion or Belief Training has been established, with Pakâ Rifa’i Abduh serving as the overall chair working with Tore Lindholm and Cole Durham as co-chairs. All participants in the pilot training course were encouraged to be actively engaged in the work of the Coordinating Committee, whose task is to establish working groups addressing follow-up activities. The single most important working group is the Indonesian Training Events Planning Group. This group will work with the Coordination Committee to identify institutions or groups interested in and capable of planning and carrying out future training courses. In cooperation with the Coordination Committee, training courses will likely be held in university settings. The pilot course was designed with the idea of providing readings and materials, which could be used for a master’s level course worth two semester hours of credit. Thus, one initiative might be to identify ways that the course materials could be refined and used as the basis for university courses. Alternatively, a number of other groups, including Indonesian NGOs and religious organizations, may benefit from such training. The Training Events Planning Group is responsible for formulating concrete plans, specifying needs for external professional or financial assistance from sponsors. The goal is to conduct a small number of one-, two-, or three-day trainings courses in freedom of religion or belief in various places in Indonesia, beginning in 2008.
The second of the longer-term Indonesia projects is to make use of teaching materials and readings from the master’s level course to shape smaller religious freedom modules, which can be incorporated into undergraduate religious freedom curriculums. This idea is already being applied in the construction of a mandatory course for senior law students at the State Islamic University “Syarif Hidayatullah,” in Jakarta. Here, Professors Durham and Lindholm are cooperating with the Vice-Dean, Noryamin Aini of the Sharía and Law Faculty, creating an innovative course called “Human Rights, Shari’a and Domestic Law,” which will begin in September 2007. Both Durham and Lindholm have been contributing to the construction of the curriculum and the selection of readings. As of early April 2007, the outline of subject-matters to be included in the course curriculum is as follows:
Human Rights, Shari’a, and Domestic Law by 7th semester students of law at the Faculty of Shari’a and Law, State Islamic University of Syarif Hidayatullah, Jakarta, Indonesia
(1) Democracy and human rights in the legal and political order of international society.
(2) Historical struggles and movements for human rights (against colonialism, genocide, slavery, apartheid, racism; for religious freedom, civil rights, and women’s rights).
(3) The Charter of Madinah, and the Cairo Declaration on Islamic Human Rights–the rights of God and the rights of human beings.
(4) The basic concept of human rights in islamic law, Islamic principles, maqasid al-shari’a (objectives of sharía) and the concept of kar’mah (human dignity).
(5) The basic concepts of human rights in international law: human dignity, equality and nondiscrimination, and “rechtsstaatâ” (rule of law).
(6) International law (instruments and bodies) relating to human rights: which codified human rights norms are binding on Indonesia, by treaty ratifications and/or by customary law?
(7) Implementing human rights in Indonesia at the national level: identifying the relevant parts of the Indonesian Constitution, legislation, courts, and tribunals.
(8) The status and implementation of provincial and district level “Shari’a-inspired by-laws”in Indonesia: To what extent are these by-laws compatible with national Indonesian law?
(9-11) Convergence or conflict between Islamic law and codified human rights? Current issues: (9) Women’s rights and discrimination against women; corporal punishments, cruel and inhuman treatments (death penalty, lashing, amputation). (10) Freedom of expression (blasphemy), freedom of religion (apostasy, atheism, inter-religious marriage), and non-Muslims’ status under Islamic Law. (11) The right to places of worship, to legal entity status, and to organizational autonomy for all religious groups, including for religious minority organizations.
(12) Challenges for shari’a /fiqh and human rights in Indonesia. The above curriculum is not final; and organizers welcome new proposals and constructive criticisms. A prestigious and successful international launch workshop: “Teaching Human Rights, Shari’a and Law at Higher Education,” was hosted by the Syarif Hidayatullah University 17-19 April 2007 in Jakarta. The Center was represented by a member of the Academic Advisory Board, Professor Javier Martínez-Torrón, Faculty of Law, Complutense University, Madrid, Spain. See the workshop program below. The expectation behind the course “Human Rights, Shari’a, and Domestic Law” is that it will be widely duplicated by other universities and colleges in Indonesia, and thus help speed up and deepen understanding of human rights, generally, and religious freedom norms in particular. A textbook of Student Readings and a more comprehensive Course Guideline for Teachers, both in Indonesian, will be compiled before Summer 2007. A four-day “Teaching of Teachers” course will take place in mid-August, to be attended by all lecturers responsible for teaching the course. The course itself will be taught to six groups of 25 to 30 law students each, beginning September 2007 and ending in the first week of January 2008.
Tore Lindholm is a member of the Center’s Academic Advisory Board and is also associate professor at the Norwegian Institute of Human Rights, University of Oslo, head of its research committee, and coordinator of its research program on Human Rights and Normative Traditions. His academic field is philosophy, originally working in the philosophy of science, social theory, and ethics. Lindholm co-initiated and sat on the steering committee of the Norwegian Research Council Ethics Program in 1990- 2001 and is a board member of the Oslo Coalition on Freedom of Religion of Belief. His present research addresses conditions and strategies for constructive and critical collaboration, cooperation, and dialogue across religious and cultural divides, on further elaboration, entrenchment, and plural justification of human rights norms and mechanisms.
Progress on Thai Constitution
The Constitutional Drafting Committee of Thailand recently submitted its draft constitution to the government and public for review and comment. Public debates across Thailand will culminate in a 100-member constitutional assembly in July that will make final revisions prior to a national referendum on the Constitution in September. If all goes according to plan, national elections will be held in December. While work on the draft constitution was progressing, Professor Cole Durham was busily involved as an advisor on a number of important topics. He invited the Honorable J. Clifford Wallace, Senior Judge and former Chief Judge of the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals, to visit Thailand, where he gave several lectures. Professor Durham also arranged for meetings between members of the Thai drafting committee and Dean David B. Magleby of the Political Science Department at B.Y.U. Robert T. Smith, Managing Director; Hannah Smith, Center Fellow; and Suzanne Sittichai, Research Fellow, have also assisted Professor Durham with his research.
Central European University
Professor Durham is spending a month at Central European University in Budapest, Hungary, teaching courses in International Protection of Freedom of Religion and Freedom of Religion in Comparative Perspective. As a Recurring Visiting Professor, Professor Durham has been teaching courses at this elite English-language university for the past eight years. This has provided a unique opportunity to work with some of the most talented students from throughout Central and Eastern Europe.
2007 Summer Research Fellows Begin Work
The 2007 Summer Research Fellows completed their training on May 7-9, 2007 and are now either working at their assigned offices in country, or working on Center projects until they depart. The Summer Research Fellows program consists of both an international externship component, which can help give law students practical experience important for launching their careers, a significant research component, opportunities for personal encounters with global leaders in the field of religious freedom, and a vital service. Fellows are assigned to work five weeks in one of eight offices: the Office of General Counsel at LDS Church Headquarters in Salt Lake City, or one of the seven Area Offices in Moscow, Frankfurt, Hong Kong, Johannesburg, Mexico City, Buenos Aires, and Sydney. Fellows will then return to Provo for the balance of the summer for work on guided individual research projects related to the development of the global religion law database project, work on analysis of emerging legislation affecting religion in various parts of the world, and other scholarly projects.
JRCLS Conference at Pepperdine Law School On February 16-17, 2007 Professors Cole Durham and Elizabeth Sewell made presentations at the Fourth Annual J. Reuben Clark Law Society Conference held at the Pepperdine University School of Law in Malibu, California. Professor Durham spoke on the “high adventure” of participating in the field of religious freedom on an international scale. Professor Sewell spoke of her personal experiences at the Center defending religious freedom on behalf of all people. Other speakers at this extraordinary conference include Elder Lance B. Wickman, General Counsel of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and a member of the First Quorum of the Seventy, Chieko Okazaki, former First Counselor, Relief Society General Presidency, Senator Gordon Smith, United States Senate, Judge Thomas Griffith, United States Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit, Judge Richard Paez, United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, Judge Milan Smith, United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, Former Utah Governor Olene Walker and Elder Walker, Church Public Affairs Missionaries in New York City, Dean Kenneth Starr, Pepperdine University School of Law, Professor Doug Kmiec, Pepperdine University School of Law, and Dean Kevin Worthen, J. Reuben Clark Law School at BYU.
Milan, Italy Meeting on Church/State Finance Prof. Cole Durham attended a meeting in Milan, Italy on March 23, 2007 organized by Professor Silvio Ferrari of the State University of Milan. The topic of the meeting was “Financing of Religion in America and Europe.â€ Professor Durham presented a paper on U.S. history and issues regarding financing of religion. Also in attendance were: Ana Maria Celis, Juan Navarro Floria, Ivan C. Iban, Romeo Astorri.
Perm, Russia Conference The Center co-sponsored a conference in Perm, Russia, “Religion in a Changing Russia: Problems of Researching Religion and Defense of Freedom of Conscience,” April 23-24, 2007, with the Russian Human Rights Ombudsman’s Office and the Russian Association of Researchers of Religion. The conference brought together approximately 60 scholars, government officials, journalists, and human rights advocates from Moscow and Central Russia, as well as a number of experts from Western Europe and the United States. The Center was represented at the conference by Professors Cole Durham and Elizabeth Sewell. During the conference, the governor of Perm also met with Professors Durham and Sewell, together with key Russian officials and Anastasia Crickley, the Personal Representative of the Chair-in-Office of the OSCE, and the Chair of the Fundamental Rights Agency of the European Union.
OSCE Ministerial Conference on Combating Discrimination, Promoting Mutual Respect and Understanding June 6-8, 2007 Bucharest, Romania Sponsored by the Office for Democratic Institute and Human Rights, Tolerance and Non-Discrimination Programme
2007 International Conference on Globalization, Immigration and Change in Religious Movements June 7-9, 2007 Bordeaux, France Sponsored by the Center for Studies on New Religions (CESNUR) and the Institute for the Study of American Religions www.cesnur.org/2007
Southern Virginia University Education Conference June 8-9, 2007 www.svuconference.com
International Symposium on Charity Law Legislation June 12-14, 2007 Beijing, People’s Republic of China Sponsored by the Legislative Affairs Office of the Ministry of Civil Affairs of the People’s Republic of China
“Emerging Legal Issues Involving Islam in Europe” June 18-19, 2007 Budapest, Hungary Cosponsored by the International Center for Law and Religion Studies at Brigham Young University and the Legal Studies Department at Central European University
“Implementation of Freedom of Religion and Belief: International and Russian Experience June 22-23, 2007 St. Petersburg, Russia Cosponsored by the Expert Council of the Russian Federations’ Human Rights Ombudsman, Institute of Religion and Law, Department of Religious-State Relations of the Russian Academy of State Service in the Presidential Administration, Russian State Humanities University, Institute for the Rule of Law in the office of the General Prosecutor of the Russian Federation, the society “Znanie” from St. Petersburg and the Leningrad region, the Administration of St. Petersburg and Leningrad Region.
North American Interfaith Network Conference July 12-16, 2007 Richmond, Virginia
Islam and the European Court: A Critical View
Prominent scholars discuss Refah Partisi (The Welfare Party) and Others v. Turkey and Leyla Sahin v. Turkey, two decisions from the European Court of Human Rights significantly impacting the free exercise of religion. Contributors offer critiques of the Court’s decisions as well as the resulting obstacles to future cases concerning religious freedom with a focus on Islam in particular.
Freedom of Religion or Belief: A Deskbook, Translations
The Center, in conjunction with the Oslo Coalition for Human Rights is sponsoring translation into Russian and Indonesian of select chapters of the Deskbook. Once translation is complete, the abridgement will be published and available for Russian and Indonesian scholars and others interested in religious freedom. The Center is also beginning work on translation of the Deskbook into Arabic and Mandarin Chinese.
Reflections on the Grodno, Belarus Conference
by Professor John Young
One of the more interesting creatures of children’s literature is the pushmi-pullyu. This two-headed creature that graced the world of Hugh Lofting’s Dr. Dolittle possessed one head on each end, and could only advance in one direction if the other half was willing to retreat. I was reminded of the pushmi-pullyu during a conference on “Religious Belief in Contemporary Society,” held in Grodno, Belarus, December 8-9, 2006. Sponsored by the Yanka Kupala State University of Grodno and the State Committee on Religious and National Affairs of the Republic of Belarus, the conference was attended by some 70 participants, including local clergy, government officials, and academics, and joined by ten foreign scholars from Ukraine, Lithuania, Poland, United Kingdom, and Canada.
As with many other independent states, which have emerged from the former Soviet Union, Belarus struggles to find a balance between individual rights and social order. Like the fictional pushmi-pullyu, any gain in one direction is perceived as a retreat for the other. An early period of religious freedom in the aftermath of 1991 led to a wide variety of new religious beliefs and associations. This sudden growth raised concerns in Belarus that national identity and social stability were threatened, and a rigorous pursuit of order and stability began with a change of government in 1994. Sandwiched between Poland and Russia, the 10 million people of Belarus occupy a geographical, cultural, and historical crossroads. Their ancestors have witnessed some of the major military campaigns of European history, including those of Napoleon and Hitler. The human cost–one in five residents of Belarus perished during World War II – has left a mark on a culture that cherishes peace and stability. Reconciling agency with order and balancing rights and responsibilities is a challenging political task in every society. Belarus is home to a variety of religious confessions: about two-thirds of the population described themselves as religious believers. Among that group, 80% identify with Orthodoxy, and 15% with Catholicism. Most of the remaining believers are Protestant, with additional Moslem and Jewish congregations. (Of a total of 2,829 registered religious congregations, three are LDS.) A 2002 law on religion affirmed a practice of state registration of religious association, restricting property use for religious meetings, visas for foreign clergy, and the importation of religious literature. The law was justified as a legitimate effort to defend historical traditions and national identity. The law makes a distinction between traditional and nontraditional religions.
Yet even though Catholicism and Calvinism have long established histories in Belarus, they have still faced challenges in obtaining building permits and visas for foreign priests. The same is true for autonomous Orthodox parishes outside the influence of the Moscow Patriarchate. In contrast, the official Belarusian Orthodox Church (exarchate of the Russian Orthodox Church), enjoys unofficial status as preferred religion, and has been described by the President of Belarus as “one of the most important pillars of our state.” For many, Orthodoxy is synonymous with Belarusian national identity. Efforts to strengthen a national consciousness thus coincide with elevating the dominant traditional religion. In a society where such significant political, economic, and social change has occurred within the past generation, any defense of the past can be persuasive.
The Orthodox Church is one of the few institutions to link disparate historical eras with the present. If, as Burke once noted, a society is a partnership among the dead, the living, and the unborn, then such links are indeed critical. Perhaps, most importantly, Orthodox theology, with its emphasis on sobornost (loosely translated as unity or togetherness) offers a remedy to the negative consequences of individualism unfettered by social responsibility. As with many religions, the Orthodox faith teaches that individual agency ennobles only when balanced by a commitment to the collective good. Thus, the contemporary climate for religious freedom in Belarus is circumscribed within a greater concern for tradition and national identity. The pushmi-pullyu (in Russian, tyan-i-tolkai) animates the relationship, with any gains in religious freedom perceived as threatening social solidarity, and vice-versa.
This tension was evident during many of the discussions at the Grodno conference. Specific papers highlighted such topics as the impact of new religious movements on society, the collaboration of churches in philanthropic work, the influence of religious freedom on national identity, and the predicted demise of Christian civilization. Underlying such discussion, however, was a perceived trade-off between individual rights and the public good. Inasmuch as the public good is equated with one particular tradition and one particular faith, then finding a balance between the two will remain an eternal and elusive pursuit. An alternative approach would be to highlight, first, how individual freedoms tempered by a commitment to the public good can strengthen society; and, second, how different faiths all have capacity to benefit society. In this regard, Belarus actually has a wonderful, alternative tradition. The legal tradition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth of the 16th century declared a strong commitment to religious tolerance. The third legal code of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (1588) declared, “And if there should be significant difference in the Christian faith, we vow to ourselves and to our descendants for all time, under oath, on our faith, dignity and conscience, that those who differ in faith will keep peace with one another.” Helping to promote this tradition is the work of the International Center for Law and Religious Studies.
Law Student Receives Internship with the U.S. State Department, Office of International Religious Freedom
Suzanne Sitthichai, a second year law student at the J. Reuben Clark Law School, and former Summer Research Fellow, recently accepted an invitation to intern at the Office of International Religious Freedom at the U.S. Department of State during the summer of 2007. Suzanne is the first Summer Research Fellow to apply for, and receive, an internship with the U.S. Office of International Religious Freedom. Each year, the Center employs up to a dozen Summer Research Fellows after their first year of law school. They complete a six-week externship at one of the offices of the International Legal Counsel for The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. These offices are located in Australia, Brazil, Germany, Ghana, Hong Kong, Peru, Russia and Salt Lake. Following their externship, the Summer Research Fellows return to Provo to support the scholarship of the Center by performing legal research on a variety of religious freedom issues. During her assignment at the State Department, Suzanne will be assigned to the geographical area of East Asia and the Pacific, working with the senior staff member who oversees that area of the world. According to the U.S. State Department website, “The Office of International Religious Freedom has the mission of promoting religious freedom as a core objective of U.S. foreign policy.” Suzanne will help the office to “monitor religious persecution and discrimination worldwide, recommend and implement policies in respective regions or countries, and develop programs to promote religious freedom.” See http://www.state.gov/g/drl/irf/. One of the important outputs of this office is an Annual Report on International Religious Freedom that includes an assessment for each country in the world. Ultimately, the work of this office is used by Congress and the Ambassador-at-Large for International Religious Freedom. Suzanne is a fluent Thai speaker and well-qualified for her assignment to East Asia and the Pacific. She has also been an important contributor to the Center’s research efforts on religious freedom. The Center congratulates Suzanne on receiving this prestigious externship and wishes her well in her continued law school studies.
Center Completes Successful Fundraising During 2006
Two thousand six was a successful year for fundraising by the Center, bringing it ever closer to its endowment-funding goals. The Center built on the past success of the “Cornerstone Campaign” by establishing a development committee headed by members of the International Advisory Council. The Development Committee now meets bi-monthly to review its progress and coordinate its efforts. As a result, the Center received significant new pledges and cash donations toward its goal of becoming self-funded through its endowment. The Center wishes to express its deep appreciation to the members of the Development Committee and the many generous donors to the Center. With the continued help and support of our generous donors, the Center hopes to continue its momentum into 2007.
Cole Durham to Assist with Thai Constitution
Through legal staff of the U.S. Embassy in Thailand, Cole Durham has recently been requested to assist building a team of foreign experts to provide comments on proposed provisions for a new constitution for the kingdom of Thailand. During the Fall of 2006, a bloodless coup toppled the Thai government led by Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra. Now, the military leadership is anxious to revise the Thai constitution paving the way for democratic rule. Professor Durham comes at this task with the experience gained last year when he assisted the interim Iraqi government formulate the new constitution with particular emphasis on its extremely important religious provisions. He will now put this experience to work on behalf of 62 million Thai citizens. As the history the United States and of many other nations illustrate, new constitutions do not generally arise from peaceful circumstances, but often follow political revolution. Although the circumstances surrounding the formation of a country’s new constitution may be tumultuous, its importance in the lives of the citizens is paramount. The constitution provides the framework for a legal system designed to protect the human rights of the citizens, including the right to religious freedom. We wish Professor Durham well in this extremely important assignment.
Religious Organizations and the Law
William Bassett, author of “Religious Organizations and the Law,” has asked Professor Durham to assume responsibility for updating and supplementing the treatise. This seminal work on the legal operations of religious organizations in the United States has been an indispensable tool for practitioners, scholars and general counsel of religious organizations. We commend Professor Bassett on his groundbreaking work in this field and hope to add to his legacy.
Thanks to the Madsens
The Center wishes to express gratitude to Erlyn and Duane Madsen, members of the International Advisory Council, for helping the Center develop improved systems of communication with the many friends of the Center. Based on their experience, we are developing new methods for maintaining our network of friends and colleagues.
Nearons Donate Paintings to the Center
David and Linda Nearon have generously donated three paintings, which were painted by Linda Nearon. These paintings depict Al Khazneh (“the Treasury”) in Petra, Jordan, The St. Sophia Cathedral in Kiev, Ukraine, and Vajdahunyad Castle in Budapest Hungary. We are grateful to Linda for her artistic talent and generosity in sharing that talent with the Center. Al Khazneh Petra, Jordan St. Sophia Cathedral Kiev, Ukraine Vajdahunyad Castle Budapest, Hungary
Religious Human Rights Courses for Islamic Universities
Professor W. Cole Durham, Jr. has recently participated in two projects which would help introduce religious human rights courses into Islamic education systems at the graduate and undergraduate level. With Professor Tore Lindholm, of the Norwegian Centre for Human Rights, University of Oslo, and the Oslo Coalition for Freedom of Religion or Belief, Professor Durham developed a set of course materials for a masters’ level law course focusing on the right to freedom of religion or belief in international and comparative constitutional law. Additionally, Professors Durham and Lindholm will introduce a religious freedom module that could be incorporated into an undergraduate human rights course. These projects were undertaken in conjunction with Islamic universities interested in developing religious freedom curricula.
Conference in Oslo, Norway On December 1-4, 2006, the Center co-sponsored the 2006 “Conference on Law and Religion in Transitional Societies: Comparative Approaches to the Rule of Law,” which was held in Oslo, Norway. Additional co-sponsors were the Oslo Coalition on Freedom of Religion or Belief, University of Oslo; Institute for World Religions, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences; Center for the Study of Law and Religion, Emory University School of Law; Pu Shi Institute for Social Science; and the Council on Faith and International Affairs.
Program • Remarks • Participants
Conference in Istanbul, Turkey On December 9-10, 2006, Professor W. Cole Durham, Jr. participated in the “International Symposium on Religion and State in Europe,” which was held in Istanbul, Turkey. Professor Durham presented a paper entitled “Globalization and Freedom of Religion: Respecting the Dignity of Difference.”
Conference in Grodno, Belarus
On December 8-9, 2006 Professor John F. Young participated in the “Religious Belief in Contemporary Society, held in Grodno, Belarus. Sponsored by the Yanka Kupala State University of Grodno and the State Committee on Religious and National Affairs of the Republic of Belarus, the conference was attended by some 70 participants, including local clergy, government officials, and academics, and joined by ten foreign scholars from Ukraine, Lithuania, Poland, United Kingdom, and Canada.
Consultation in Bristol, England
Professor W. Cole Durham, Jr. participated in an Expert Consultation on the subject of The European Union and the Religious Dimensions of Law: Issues and Challenges,” which was held on January 12-13, 2007 at the University of Bristol School of Law, United Kingdom.
Islam and the European Court: A Critical View Prominent scholars discuss Refah Partisi (The Welfare Party) and Others v. Turkey and Leyla Sahin v. Turkey, two decisions from the European Court of Human Rights significantly impacting the free exercise of religion. Contributors offer critiques of the Court’s decisions as well as the resulting obstacles to future cases concerning religious freedom with a focus on Islam in particular.
Freedom of Religion or Belief: A Deskbook, Translations. The Center, in conjunction with the Oslo Coalition for Human Rights is sponsoring translation into Russian and Indonesian of select chapters of the Deskbook. Once translation is complete, the abridgment will be published and available for Russian and Indonesian scholars and others interested in religious freedom. The Center is also beginning work on translation of the Deskbook into Arabic and Mandarin Chinese.
February 16-17, 2007, J. Reuben Clark Law Society Annual Conference, Malibu, California February
27-March 1, 2007, International Religious Liberty Association 6th World Congress, Cape Town, South Africa March 1 International Advisory Council Meeting
March 5-6, 2007, Leadership Conference on the Future of Religion in the Public Schools: Beyond the Culture Wars, Nashville, Tennessee • Program
March 23, 2007, Financing of Religion in America and Europe, Milan, Italy • Program
April 22-25, 2007, Anniversary of the 1997 Religion Law, Perm, Russia
October 7-9, 2007, Fourteenth Annual International Law and Religion Symposium, Provo, Utah